RECYCLE AND BENEFICIAL REUSE GROUP
The Reuse/Recycling Program Group strives to harness the environmental benefits of reusing and recycling of industrial or other recycled materials. The Team host’s technical workshops on the beneficial reuse of industrial byproducts, targeting states across the regions in an effort to bring together experts from all stakeholder groups to discuss the benefits of and barriers to building and maintaining highways constructed from reused and recycled materials and industrial byproducts. These candid exchanges are intended to facilitate the flow of information, thus creating an integrated decision-making process.
Our strategic goals listed below also include objectives for building partnerships and developing demonstration projects and outreach materials/resources
Conservation of non-renewable resources- Lime, gypsum, and aggregate are examples of mined materials which can be substituted with various recycled materials. New mines destroy green fields and impact wildlife habitat.
Better Material Properties- Many reused and recycled materials perform better than the material they replace or bring additional performance benefits. Slag cement has a higher reflectivity than other cementitious materials. Lighter color concrete absorbs less heat, helping minimize the heat island effect. In another example, crushed glass has a higher frictional characteristic.
It is estimated that roadway and highway construction in the United States is currently consuming between 500 and 800 million metric tons of virgin crushed rock, gravel and sand each year as aggregate. The existing annual quantities of industrial by-product source materials, some 600 million metric tons, represents a way to significantly reduce the amount of virgin materials required for transportation infrastructure projects, natural resources, address energy and climate change issues and reduce the need for landfill space.
The materials matrix represented in Figure 1.0 prepared by the Industrial Resources Council, shows six major groups of by-product materials in the column headers, with the rows as potential applications.Enlarge
Benefits from Reducing the Landfilling of CCPs: Beneficially using CCPs instead of landfilling them also reduces the need for additional landfill space. The U.S. annually landfills over 83 million tons of CCPs. The landfill space required is the equivalent of placing 26,240 quarter acre home sites under 8 ft of CCPs. Landfill space in the U.S. is at a premium. Many energy facilities no longer have adequate storage space for CCPs. Beneficially using CCPs reduces the need to locate and develop new disposal facilities and any adverse environmental or health effects associated with them.
Benefits from Reducing the Need to Mine Virgin Materials: CCPs can be substituted for many virgin materials that would otherwise have to be mined. These include, lime to make concrete, natural gypsum for making wallboard and gravel for making roofing granules. Each of these materials would require mining virgin materials, potentially destroying green fields and wildlife habitat. It makes more sense to use existing materials that would otherwise be disposed of than to mine new ones. And, at the same time, waste and harm to the environment is reduced.
Performance and Economic Benefits
Visit http://www.slagcement.org to learn more or conversely, explore the following links:
Benefits of Using Steel Slag
Roughly 300 million scrap tires are generated each year in the United States, approximately 1 tire per person in the country. Most of these tires are reused in various applications, though about 40 million tires still go to landfills or other land disposal options. There are also still about 180 million tires in stockpiles. When recycled, scrap tire material replaces some other material currently used in construction such as lightweight fill materials like expanded shale or polystyrene insulation blocks, drainage aggregate, or even soil or clean fill. Tire derived aggregate has very useful engineering properties that make these materials an excellent choice for construction applications. For road construction, tires can be cut into small pieces to produce tire derived aggregate (TDA). TDA is a lightweight aggregate with good drainage and insulation properties. TDA has been used successfully to support embankments and roads on weak or marshy soils. Recycled tires can also be used as ground rubber for hot mix asphalt.
Reclaimed concrete aggregate (RCA) is a popular substitute for natural stone aggregates. RCA is obtained from the demolition of Portland cement concrete (PCC) structures such as PCC pavements, sidewalks, curbing, building slabs and runways. The concrete may be hauled to a central facility for stockpiling and processing, though on transportation projects the concrete is often crushed in place using a mobile plant. Processing generally involves crushing the concrete and screening it to remove soil and fine particles. Reinforcing steel is removed during processing by magnetic separators. The resulting RCA is composed of high quality mineral aggregates bonded to pieces of the hardened cement paste. RCA properties make it appropriate for use as aggregate in new PCC, granular fill and base course layers in pavements.
Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC) Overview fact sheet
U.S. EPA’s Industrial Materials Recycling (IMR) Program.
Homepage for the Industrial Materials Recycling Program
AASHTO Center for Environmental Excellence Waste Management & Recycling Page
User Guidelines for Industrial Byproduct Materials in Pavement Construction
The Industrial Resources Council (IRC)
Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC)
FHWA Office of Pavement Technology: Recycling Homepage
EPA’s Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG)
Coal Combustion Products Partnership’s (C2P2) Highways Applications
Federal Highway Administration Guidebook on Fly Ash
Foundry Sand Facts for Civil Engineers, FHWA-IF-04-004, May 2004
Report on Use of Recycled Foundry Sand in the Cleveland Area
Guidebook on Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag - FHWA
Guidebook on Silica Fume -FHWA
Recycled Concrete Aggregate: Transportation Applications
Recycled Materials in European Highway Environments: Uses, Technologies, and Polices
FHWA POLICY AND TECHNICAL ADVISORIES
Technical Advisory T 5080.9. Use of Coal Ash in Embankments and Bases.
Technical Advisory: Use of Recycled Concrete Pavement as Aggregate in Hydraulic-Cement Concrete Pavement
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
Recycled Materials Resource Center (RMRC) Project 13/14: The Development and Preparation of Specifications for Using Recycled Materials in Highway Applications
FHWA National Highway Specifications Website
State Transportation Websites
Engineering and Environmental Specifications of State Agencies for Utilization and Disposal of Coal Combustion Products: Volume 1 – DOT Specifications 2005-EERC-07-04
The Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota conducted a state by state comparison of U.S. Department of Transportation specifications for using coal combustion products.
University of Wisconsin’s Beneficial Use Information Center (BUIC)
Indiana Department of Transportation (InDOT) Standard Specifications
InDOT Special Provision 203-R-360. Embankments Constructed of Coal Combustion By-Products
InDOT Special Provision 211-R-415. Crushed Glass as Bedding Material
InDOT Special Provision 200-R-401. Recycled Foundry Sand
Illinois DOT Specifications – Materials
Caltrans Standard Specifications May 2006
Texas Department of Transportation Specifications for Recycled Materials
Evaluation of Industrial Waste Evaluation Model (IWEM) For Non-Federal Users With Regard to Highway Applications
Geo Engineering Report No. 05-22: Assessing Groundwater Impacts from Coal Combustion Products Used In Highways
Geo Engineering Report No. 05-21: Metals Leaching from Highway Test Sections Constructed with Industrial Byproducts
EPA’s Coal Combustion Products Partnership Program Case Studies
Coal Fly Ash Used on Ohio Full Depth Reclamation Projects
Indiana Department of Transportation (InDOT) Case Studies #1-6
Wisconsin DOT Case Studies #1-2
These case studies can be found on the EPA’s “Success Stories” website. Click here and scroll down to “Wisconsin DOT Case Studies."
Presentation on WisDOT Fly Ash Stabilization Experiences
Sudden Stops and Starts Don’t Bother the Illinois Tollway Plazas Anymore
Largest Stone Matrix Asphalt Project in USA Spans 6 lanes for 8 Miles
NASCAR drivers Know a Smooth Surface Starts with a Strong Foundation
Slag Fills Six Miles of Two New Concrete Lanes on Busy I-65 in Hobart, Indiana
Once Again Slag Proves “Less is More” on Michigan’s M-63 in Benton Harbor
I-70 through Colorado’s Glenwood Canyon
Lightweight Slag – the Product of Choice for Highway 17 in Renfrew, Ontario
Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag is Major Component of NCAT Test Track Research
Department of Defense Paving Materials Highlight Environmental Attributes
An Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Case Study successfully used recycled content products, such as asphalt and concrete.
Kukkia Circlet Environmentally Friendly System to Renovate Secondary Roads
EPA’s C2P2 Website: Benefits of using CCPs
Beneficial Reuse Model (BenReMod)
MID-ATLANTIC GREEN HIGHWAY PARTNERSHIP
FINDING SUPPLIERS OF INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS